Hair Cosmetics: An Overview

Research paper about cosmetics pdf. Cruelty-Free Cosmetics

Understanding the difference between the surfactants as well as the mode of action of conditioning agents, if on the cuticle or in the cortex, will help choose whether lubrication, strength, body mass, volume or sleekness is desired. Difficulty in untangling the strands, and the frizz effect. Contact dermatitis is the main reaction.


The use of leave-on products on straight virgin hair may cause an oily look and dull the hair.

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They are often used as shampoo's softeners. Even though the aldehyde is a very minor component of its solutions, glyoxylic acid behaves as an aldehyde in its reactions and is considered a sensitizer and a toxic substance.

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The most important layer of the CMC is called the beta-layer, and it is considered research paper about cosmetics pdf be the intercellular cement and it is sandwiched by other layers from each cell.

To overcome the cuticle and reach the cortex, the product must have an alkaline pH able to open the scales. The cleansing ability of a shampoo depends on how well it removes grease as well as the type and amount of surfactants used. Demi-permanent dyes do not contain ammonia or ethanolamine and for this reason are gentler on the hair than the permanent colors.

Mineral oil main effects are its higher spreading capability on the hair surface which improves gloss, combing facility and reduces split end formation. Hair strength depends on cuticle integrity and amount of water in the fibers, conditions that are related to chemical damage. The MEA is responsible for the hydrophobicity of the hair and its removal by alkaline chemical cosmetics procedures may damage hair by increasing hydrophilia.

The first one contains the higher amount of cystine, and the third one contains the lowest.

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  • To avoid sensorial discomfort while appling the BKT, the ingredients used today are based not on formaldehyde or glutaraldehyde, but on formaldehyde-releasers such as methilene glycol or glyoxylic acid.

Both substances remove the natural cuticle lipid, the metil eicosanoic acid, which confers hidrofobicity to the fiber. If a hot iron is applied during the process, the permanent straightening can be achieved.

Hair Cosmetics: An Overview

Transcellular and intercellular diffusion, transcellular diffusion envolves epicuticle, A-layer, exocuticle, endocuticle and is much harder path way because of the high cross-linked regions. Focus on the black patient. Other countries, including Canada and Australia, have active pending legislation underway.

They are not as effective research paper about cosmetics pdf covering gray or white hair because they only reach the cuticle. Prominent among these are the fatty alcohols, cetyl alcohol, stearyl alcohol, and cetostearyl alcohol consisting predominantly of cetyl and stearyl alcoholsand oleyl alcohol. Although using a hair dryer causes more surface research paper about cosmetics pdf than natural drying, the work of Lee and cols concluded that using a hair dryer at a distance of 15 cm with continuous motion causes less damage than drying hair naturally.

Chargeability also decreases helping to improve dry combing. Excess of residues research paper about cosmetics pdf a matter of great interest due to frequent usage of leave-on products by African descendent or Hispanic descendent patients, especially with longer hair.

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The type of fracture depends on hair condition and wet versus dry combing or brushing. It is preferred to reapply oils that leave a thin layer on the surface and are well absorbed by the fiber.

According to McMichael[ 2 ] hair fragility leading to breakage can occur due to genetic predisposition, weathering from various hair care practices.

California Cruelty-Free Cosmetics Act

Depending on the capacity of entering the fiber, the conditioner may reach the cuticle surface or the inner part of the cortex. Treatments using oils reduced the formation of split ends in the hair.

  • Some polymers are reported to build-up the hair and bind to anionic surfactants.
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Morocco's argan oil is now the most expensive edible oil in the world. The alpha-helix is held coiled by chemical forces such as: Hair strength is a mix of hair body mass and resistance to breakage. In order to minimize damage, other surfactants called secondary surfactants such as nonionic and amphoteric surfactants are added to the formulation. New York: But to be effective, S.

Less research paper about cosmetics pdf is achievable by lubricating the fiber surface and decreasing static charge. Such effects do not happen with the new anionic surfactants that are derived from the sulfation of fatty acids and analogue polioxiethilenes alquil sulfates, alquil ether sulfates which are smooth cleansers and cosmetically superior.

Coconut oil, being a triglyceride elderly drivers essay lauric acid principal fatty acidhas a high affinity for hair proteins and because of its low molecular weight and straight linear chain, is able to penetrate inside the hair shaft.

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However, after shampooing and removing the lipids, hair dries out exposing the damage caused by excess of heat. Chemical and Physical Behavior of Human Hair. Until China removes these testing requirements, companies large and small are trying strategies to remain cruelty-free, such as manufacturing in China, avoiding manufacture of some kinds of cosmetics, creating separate product lines for the Chinese market, or avoiding selling their products in China altogether.

After the thermal treatment with the addition of lipid products, hair may seem to be easier to comb. Glyoxylic acid contains an aldehyde functional group. Robbins CR. They are very mild and have excellent dermatological properties.

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Examples of lipids nc state thesis library cetyl alcohol, stearyl alcohol or silicones such as dimethicone. Deep conditioners contain more concentrated ingredients or just more viscosity. Madnani N, Khan K.

Understanding the difference between the surfactants as well as the mode of action of conditioning agents, if on the cuticle or in the cortex, will help choose whether lubrication, strength, body mass, volume or sleekness is desired. A Global Movement An essay about alternative medicinethe European Union banned the testing of cosmetics on animals in the EU, and the marketing or sale of cosmetics that have been tested on animals outside the EU.

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The main cleansing agents are anionic. Skin sensitization, or allergy, is assessed by applying substances to the skin of a guinea pig or the ear of a mouse, causing redness, ulcers, itching, burning, and inflammation.

All are examples of quats, so named because an essay about alternative medicine all contain a quaternary ammonium ion. The medulla is present in corser hair like grey hair, thick hair and beard hair, and it is absent in fine hair of children.

Until China removes these testing requirements, companies large and small are trying strategies to remain cruelty-free, such as manufacturing in China, avoiding manufacture of some kinds of cosmetics, creating separate product lines for the Chinese market, or avoiding selling their products in China altogether. Their combined use can lead to hair shaft breakage.

Hair Cleansing. The products are grouped into: Permanent hair colors are the most commonly used hair colors, because of their longevity, and ability to lighten the original darker color.


Dimethicone is the main ingredient of the two-in-one shampoos. Chemical damage by bleaches, dyes, straighteners and even sunlight can weaken hair and increase inter-fiber friction, leading to breakage. To avoid mistakes like that, the salon professional must perform a test that consists on the application of the product on a strand of hair to prove compatibility.

And they also contain resorcinol, but this substance is gradually being removed from the ingredients in some markets, for safety reasons.

Cruelty-Free Cosmetics

They concluded that the creams showed an intense genotoxic response. Splitting occur when the cuticle is damaged and weakened. In Vitro Research paper about cosmetics pdf Although the dermatology practice involves the use of anti-dandruff and anti-psoriasis shampoos and lotions containing hair damaging ingredients, as well as minoxidil and other hair solutions, it is difficult to avoid hair weathering due to chemical procedures combined with hair medical treatments.

The use of conditioners and leave-on products decrease interfiber friction making hair easier to comb. The cuticle is generally formed by 6—8 scales thick for Asians, slightly less in Caucasians and even less in African hair.

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Still, consumers complained of burning eyes, strong smell and burning mouth and nose. However, the result is an increase of the preexisting negativity of the strands and the formation of stable complexes that bond with the keratin, creating repulsion between the strands due to excessive static electricity.

This means that the use of thioglycolate causes less protein loss than hydroxides.

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The newly redesigned keratin is then kept in this shape because the formaldehyde crosslinks the keratin filaments in such a perfect alignment that the hair is now set straight and shines like no virgin straight hair is capable of. Marrocan argan oil has become very popular as a hair cosmetic main ingredient, referred as capable of keeping the hair moisturized and hydrophobic.

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United Kingdom: Dimethicones are hydrophobic, so they adsorb better on virgin hair and root rather than tips. Tresses treated with Brazilian nut and mineral oils gave the lowest formation of split ends. This is the way the African descendants may experience some feeling of hair loss after performing a hair straightening procedure because when the hair loses volume, the scalp may be exposed because of the lower number of hair follicles.

The habit of hair straightening was first used to allow manageability of very coarse hair but nowadays having straight hair has become popular all over the world. A study by Simpson and Crawshaw[ 60 ] which analyzed the reactivity of formaldehyde and wool keratin, found that formaldehyde forms cross-links with the keratin amino acids; arginine, lysine, tyrosine, histidine, essay on animals my best friend the amide derivatives of aspartate and glutamate.

Mineral oil, a hydrocarbon, does not penetrate. The process of reduction the hair involves hair swelling and research paper about cosmetics pdf alkaline substances such as sodium or lithium hydroxide, guanidine, ammonium thioglicolate, pH higher than 9. Some examples that we can find among the ingredients are cetrimonium chloride and stearalkonium chloride.

Although scientific data is lacking to prove whether Hispanic hair is really as sensitive, it is common to see Hispanic women with chemically straightened hair, suffering from hair breakage and asking for the dermatologist help and advice to overcome the problem.

Increasing the thickness of the oil layer on the fiber surface increased hair moisture regain.

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Highlights or light shades are absolutely incompatible with chemical relaxers. When the hair is extremely weathered and chemically treated, there may be scaling of research paper about cosmetics pdf cuticle layers, removal of the MEA and cuticle crack. Choosing the right ingredients is absolutely related to achieve the patient's full compliance.